Scientific research

Increasing fertility of non-saline typical gray and gray-meadow soils by enriching them with organic matter

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

The complex of agro-technical measures, including excessive application norms of organic fertilizers and alternation of crops (with introduction of repeated and intermediate crops) and use of crop residues as organic fertilizers provides an increase of soil fertility and balanced crop nutrition.

 Brief summary of technology:

In recent years, soil studies have revealed a tendency of reduction in the fertility of irrigated soils due to reduction of organic matter and essential nutrient contents. This reduction is mainly due to a long term cultivation of cotton monoculture, nonobservance of scientifically tested practices of crop rotation and

alternation of crop types. Therefore, it is important to develop agro-technologies directed towards enriching soil with organic matter. To increase the organic matter in accordance with the technology, application of higher quantities of manure (30-40 t/ha) and crop diversification are envisaged during the initial years. In the cotton-winter wheat production system, this technology includes a successive alternation of these crops with repeated leguminous and intermediate crops such as oats, rape,

perco used as green manure. This technology is modified by applying a compost of crop residues, prepared in the specially dug pits, instead of manure. A compost is applied into the soil during autumn ploughing with the amount of 15-20 t/ha.

 Location: “Saidovul” farm, Srednochirchik district, Tashkent province.

Area of technology application: 35 ha.

Location: “Husniddin Jura bobo”farm, Yakkabog district, Kashkadarya Province.

Area of technology application: 5 ha.

Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Low soil fertility, inadequate supply of nutrients and organic matter (humus). Main reason – low contents of organic fertilizers, removal of crop residues from fields and poor crop rotation.

Main technical features of technology:

Improving ground cover with biomass, increasing organic matter contents, optimizing favorable nutrient contents for plants.

 Type of land use Conservation measures Arable land. Production of annual crops - Во(Са).

Agronomic measures:

А2: Organic matter / soil fertility.

 

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 500-750 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 100-500 m.

Landscape: plains, valley.

Slope (%): 0-2%, 2-5%.

Soil fertility: average.

Humus content in arable horizon: 1-3% (1-1.5%).

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.

Size of land area (ha): 40 ha.

Landholder: farmer, households.

Land ownership: long term lease.

Water use rights: through WUAs and organizations responsible for management of irrigation systems.

Market orientation: State Order, mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- saving mineral fertilizers by 30-40%;

- increasing yield of crops and farmers’ incomes by 15-20%;

- additional farm income by selling repeated crop yields.

Main disadvantages:

- difficulties in subsequent crop production related to

additional costs of labor and water application.

 Acceptance/adoption of technology: Due to the difficulties in subsequent crop production and insufficient amounts of applied organic fertilizers (manure, dung, etc) this technology is used by farmers only from place to place, not everywhere.

 Reference(s):

1. M.M. Tashkuziev. Influence of agricultural technology of organic matter management on fertility of irrigated typical sierozem soils. The materials of the International Scientific Conference on "State and prospects of Soil Science". Almaty-2005, p. 99-100;

2. M.M. Tashkuziev, A.A. Sherbekov. Increase of soil fertility by agro-technology directed towards enriching soils with organic matter. “Agrarian science – to agriculture”. 2nd International scientific-practical conference, Barnaul, 2007;

3. Consolidated report of the innovative project I-2010-6, entitled: “Introduction of agro-technologies, directed towards increase of soil fertility in irrigated agriculture in farming. Project leader – prof. M.M. Tashkuziev.

Name of person(s) collected this description: Prof. Maruf Tashkuziev, National Research Institute of Soil Science & Agrochemistry.

Address: 3, Kamarniso str.,Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Tel.: +99871 2271399; Mob.: +99890 9975784.

E-mail: maruf41@rambler.ru

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