Scientific research

Organic-mineral fertilizers on the basis of secondary resources and their use for recultivation of low-fertile soils

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

New organic-mineral fertilizers produced on the basis of the secondary resources (glauconite, low-quality phosphorites and phosphorite flour) by composting with manure, as well as biohumus with an addition of minerals are used for optimization of properties of low-productive soils.

Brief summary of technology:

At present, the use of local sources of nutritional elements for agricultural crops plays an important role in conditions of intensifying tendency of decreasing contents of organic matter in soils and insufficiency of mineral fertilizers and manure. There are secondary resources in the country (low-quality phosphorites, non-traditional agro-ores, diverse organic wastes), which can be used for this purpose. By using manure and low-quality phosphorites of Tashkura or brown coal from Angren and phosphorite flour from central Kyzilkum desert, the biotechnological methods allows producing new organic-mineral fertilizers. The technology of production of manure-based glauconitic fertilizer is the same as of phosphorite–manure fertilizers. Fertilizers are produced by a composting method during four months under the ratio of manure and secondary resources components 9:1. Bio-humus is produced by the traditional technology by processing of vermicompost wastes of animal and poultry husbandry with addition of serpentinite minerals. New organic fertilizer based on secondary resources and manure should be applied before sowing cereals (full annual rate), in autumn for cotton under plowing – 70% and the rest in the spring before planting at the application rate of 20 t/ha. Vermicompost with the addition of serpentinite should be applied in spring ploughing under cotton (70%), the rest - in the budding stage. The vermicompost under grain crops should be applied twice in equal proportions - before sowing and during the first feeding. The application of these fertilizers is most effective in soils with fertility below average (less than 40 bonitet score).

Place of technology application:

Fertilizers were tested in the farms of the Tashkent province. The results of the experiments were increased yields of raw cotton by 0.3-0.5 t/ha and winter wheat by 10-12 t/ha.

Location: "Saidovul" farm, Kim Pen Hva area, Srednochirchik district and "Dzhasur agro business" farm, Ohangaran district, Tashkent province.

Area of technology application: 10 ha.

Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Low soil fertility, inadequate supply of nutrients and organic matter (humus). Inappropriate land and crop management, anthropogenic pollution of the soil (influence of cement-production factories).

Main technical features of technology:

Improving ground cover with biomass, increasing organic matter contents, optimizing favorable nutrient contents for plants, reducing the need for mineral fertilizers.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Arable land.

Production of cotton, winter wheat - Во(Ca).

Agronomic measures:

А2: Organic matter / soil fertility.

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 250-750 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 500-1000 m.

Landscape: plains and piedmont slopes.

Slope (%): 0-2%, 2-5%, 5-8%.

Soil fertility: low.

Humus content in arable horizon: 1%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.

Size of land area (ha): 10, 20 and 200 ha.

Landholder: farmer, households.

Land ownership: long term lease.

Water use rights: through WUAs and organizations responsible for management of irrigation systems.

Market orientation: State Order, mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- increase of crop yields and of biomass by 20%;

- reduction of mineral fertilizer application by 30-40% and organic fertilizers by 3-4 times.

Main disadvantages:

Acceptance/adoption of technology: Application of this technology by farmers in a large scale is limited by availability of organic fertilizers (manure), most farmers have access to the industrial wastes (low-grade phosphorites and other).

Reference(s):

1. M.M. Tashkuziev, S.K. Ochilov, T.T. Berdiyev, A.A. Sherbekov // Agrotechnologies to improve soil fertility and productivity of crops // Agricultural science to agriculture, VIII International scientific-practical conference dedicated to the 70th Anniversary of the Altai State Agrarian University. Barnaul, 2013;

2. Catalogue of the VI Republican fair of innovative ideas, technologies and projects, Tashkent - 2013. Technology of M.Tashkuziev, National Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry.

Name of person(s) collected this description: Prof. Maruf Tashkuziev, National Research Institute of Soil Science & Agrochemistry.

Address: 3, Kamarniso str.,Tashkent, Uzbekistan. Tel.: +99871 2271399; Mob.: +99890 9975784.

E-mail:maruf41@rambler.ru

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