Scientific research

Integrated management of productivity of saline and gypsum soils

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

The technology includes a set of technical, agronomic and institutional measures aimed at enhancing the productive functions of irrigated land.

Brief summary of technology:

The technology of integrated soil management is based on a clear regulation of a set of measures:

1) Technical measures:

- loosening the soil to a depth of 60-70 cm;

- improved field leveling;

- improved drainage (maintenance, cleaning) as required.

2) Ameriorative measures:

- leaching of salts from the root zone;

- irrigation regime with leaching fraction in the growing season.

3) Agronomic measures:

- balanced plant nutrition (10 t/ha of manure and fertilizers in accordance with cultivated crops and soil fertility level);

- crop rotation: cotton (April-October) - winter wheat (October-June) - legumes (July-October) - grass for green manure (October-March);

- enriching soil with plant residues after harvest;

- caring for crops (timely inter-row cultivation, biological methods of plant protection).

4) Institutional arrangements:

- improving knowledge of farmers through FFS approaches FAO.

Profit margins on a demonstration plot was 400-600 USD/ha from cotton and 240-295 USD/ha from wheat, which is 2.5 times higher than in neighboring farms. Integrated management is an attractive technology of increasing the soil productivity that can be adopted by farmers without significant increase of costs.

Location: Syrdarya and Kashkadarya Provinces, South Karakalpakstan.

Area of technology application: 30 ha and 54.5 ha.

Stage of intervention: mitigation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Widespread violation of farming techniques and land cultivation has led to the destruction of soil structure, soil compaction, poor ventilation and moisture transfer. Over the past decade bonitet fertility decreased by 5-6 points.

Main technical features of technology:

Reduced salinity, improved water-physical properties, soil structure and its biological activity.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Arable land.

Cotton production - Во(Ca).

Agronomic measures:

A2: Organic matter / soil fertility;

A3: Processing of topsoil;

A4: Processing of subsoil.

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 200-400 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 100-350 m.

Landscape: valley.

Slope (%): 0-2% (flat); 2-5% (steep).

Soil fertility: low.

Humus content in arable horizon: <1%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: low.

Size of land area (ha): 30-55 ha.

Landholder: farmer and dehkhan households.

Land ownership: lease (farmers); private property (dehkhan households).

Water use rights: through WUAs and organizations responsible for management of irrigation systems.

Market orientation: mixed farming (subsistence), free market.

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- low-cost, low-risk way to improve land productivity;

- affordable to farmers as it includes a set of measures that have been used in the past and are currently in use;

- possibility to gain experience on a "farmer to farmer" principle;

- possibility to reproduce in another region with minor adaptation.

Main disadvantages:

- this practice is not fully consistent with the principles of soil conservation farming;

- lack of agricultural inputs, machinery and equipment (mechanisms for deep ploughing, leveling) limit widespread use.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: The practice was introduced on demonstration plots in Syrdarya and Kashkadarya provinces, adapted to the conditions of the South Karakalpakstan through the WB project "Reconstruction of the irrigation and drainage infrastructure and restoration of wetlands" (2005-2009). Some farmers trained in the FFS, began to use this technology in their practice.

Reference(s):

1. Integrated management for sustainable use of saline and gypsiferous soils in Uzbekistan. Final Report. The project FAO / TCP / UZB / 2901 (2005).

2. "Reconstruction of irrigation and drainage infrastructure and restoration of wetlands" WB project. Final Report (2009).

Name of person(s) collected this description: Tatyana Hamzina, Chief specialist on soil reclamation studies and irrigation regime. UZGIP LTD.

Address: 44, Navoi str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Tel.: +998 90 9945654

Email: tatyana_khamzina@mail.ru

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