Scientific research

Nano-agroameliorative techniques to improve soil fertility and crop productivity

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

Increased sustainability of plants to extreme environmental conditions based on low-volume products-adaptogens with specified multifunctional properties according to ST TOO 15118730-01-2006.

Brief summary of technology:

Phytomelioration of the degraded soils by applying nanoagromeliorative techniques to increase bioenergy and ecological sustainability of agricultural crops to extreme conditions (salinity, alkalinity of soils, pesticides, unfavorable meteorological conditions, etc).

Products-adaptogens are of low volume (consumption of these adaptogens varies from 5 to 170 g/ha) and are universal biostimulants of growth and development of crops. At present, the technology is developed for 33 crops (corn, wheat, soybeans, rice, cucumber, tomato, etc.). The technology consists of preplanting processing of agricultural plant seeds in optimal technological conditions (concentration of working solutions of adaptogens, timing of seeds soaking), as well as spraying vegetating plants from 3 to 9 times during the growing season. Adaptogens increase vigor and seed germination, vegetative mass, productive tillering and biological productivity of agricultural plants. Improvement of the soil fertility is due to higher accumulation of organic matter in the soil (increase of root mass). The use of adaptogens to increase crop productivity is very beneficial for agricultural producers, as manufacturing costs and application do not exceed 4%.

Location: Districts: Enbekshikazakh, Karasay, Balkhash; Almaty province

Area of technology application: 600 ha.

Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Progressive secondary soil salinization, water and wind erosion, caused by violation of agronomic and agrotechnical rules and regulations.

Main technical features of technology:

Improving sustainability of crops to extreme conditions, increase humus by increasing the mass of roots and crop residues.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Rainfed and irrigated arable land.

Cultivation of annual crops - Во(Ca).

Agronomic measures:

A2: Organic matter / soil fertility;

A5: other (pre-planting treatment of seeds, spraying of vegetative organs).

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: <250 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 500-1000 m.

Landscape: foothill slopes, valleys.

Slope (%): 2-16%.

Soil fertility: The technology is used on soils with medium, low and very low fertility.

Humus content in arable horizon: 1-2.5%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.

Size of land area (ha): vegetables - 15-50 ha, other -50-100 ha.

Landholder: cooperatives, medium and large land users, mixed.

Land ownership: land lease (from government), lease.

Water use rights: through water user associations (WUA), and state manage the irrigation systems on relevant payment.

Market orientation: mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- adaptogens are of low volume (consumption rate is 5 to 170 g/ha) and low-cost (production and use does not exceed 4% of the cost of crop cultivation);

- increasing the resistance of plants to extreme conditions prevents possible crop losses due to salinity, unfavorable agro-meteorological conditions and others.

Main disadvantages:

- higher awareness of land users about the possibilities of this technology is required.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: New technology was introduced in the Enbekshikazakh district of the Almaty province (LLP "NurAgro"); In the Panfilov district of the Almaty province (LLP "KoktalAgro") and the territory of the Shaulder irrigation massif in the "Kurmash" and "Ak Jol" farms of the South Kazakhstan province.

Reference(s): Research findings, results of many years of research (1980-2007) of the Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry of KazNII named after U.U.Uspanov.

Name of person(s) collected this description: Mamonov A.G., Leading researcher of LLP "Kazakh Research Institute of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry named after U.U.Uspanov".

Address: 75, Al-Farabi Avenue, 050060 Almaty. Tel./Fax: +7 727 2694733. Mob.: +7 701 3526195; +7 701 5052446.

Е-mail:   mamonov3@rambler.ru

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