Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.
Definition of technology:
Sowing of wheat in the bottom of the soil cracks, which are made using crack-making machinery, contributes to the accumulation of precipitation and efficient use of soil moisture, providing multiple sprouts, protects against dry winds in the early stages of development, eliminates freezing in cold seasons, improves soil texture and water - air regime of soils.
Brief summary of technology:
The technology of wheat cultivation in the cracks is as follows: during early autumn, moisture-raising irrigation event with a norm of 1600 m3/ha is conducted. With help of crack-making machinery-seeder, cracks are made with a depth of 12-14 cm and a width of 6-8 cm between the inter-rows of 15 cm with simultaneous sowing of the seeds in the center of the crack bottom to a depth of 4-5 cm.
An optimum amount of moisture is accumulated at a depth of seeding, and a seed, falling into a well-moistened soil layer, gives multiple shoots. Inside cracks, the seeds are protected from pests (insects and birds), which ensures the preservation of the necessary plant density. Cracks protect plants from dry winds and high temperature, reducing the physical evaporation. Moisture from precipitation accumulates in these cracks and during the cool autumn nights moisture condensation takes place in the bottom of the cracks, which favors crop tillering. In winter, the plants do not freeze, because roots are protected from frost lying at a depth of 0.6-0.7 cm, where the soil temperature does not fall below zero.
After grass becomes dense, conditioned moisture accumulates in the cracks during cool nights in early spring, which has a positive effect on the development of plants. In the phase of earing, wheat stands inside the cracks are steady, do not lodge, providing a harvest of yield without loss. Post-harvest stubble – strong parts of the stems with a height of 12-14 cm from the surface, are left in the field. When ploughing, they are mixed with the soil and improve the texture and the water-air regime of the soil.
Location: Dashogus, Akhal, Mary and Lebap provinces.
Area of technology application: 2-5 ha of experimental plots and small farms.
Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation.
Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:
Irrigation water deficit and hot dry climate. Moldboard plowing, traditionally used in the cultivation of crops, leads to a deterioration of water-physical soil properties, formation of a hard pan, carbon emissions from the soil into the atmosphere.
Main technical features of technology:
Prevention of soil erosion, improved surface coverage by vegetation.
Type of land use Conservation measures
Annual crops - Во(Ca).
A3: Processing of the soil surface;
A4: Processing of the subsurface soil layer.
Habitat Anthropogenic environment
Average annual rainfall: 290-400 mm.
Altitude (meter above sea level): 595-860 m.
Landscape: valley and mountains.
Slope (%): 1-8%.
Soil fertility: average and below average.
Humus content in arable horizon: 0.4-1.5%.
Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.
Size of land area (ha): 1-10 ha.
Landholder: farmers and tenants.
Land ownership: permanent use.
Water use rights: state use.
Market orientation: market oriented.
Impact of technology
Improving conditions for growth and development of wheat: the seeds fall into the moist soil layers, cracks protect wheat from frost, hot winds.
Not applicable on sandy and very light soils.
Acceptance/adoption of technology: State Association "Turkmengallaonumleri" and tenants have recognized the applicability of this technology in production. The technology is already in use in the mountains of Turkmenistan.
Reference(s): Reports and recommendations of the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan.
Name of person(s) collected this description: A.S. Saparmyradov, Chief expert of the Department of Agriculture, the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan.
Address: 15, Bitarap avenue, Ashgabat744000, Turkmenistan.
Tel.: +993 12 94-30-60; Mob.: +993 65 63-71-15.