Scientific research

Technology of cultivation of own-rooted seedlings of fruit crops and grapes

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

A special irrigation system with the holes in the irrigation pipes, into which the prepared cuttings of fruit crops and grapes are directly planted, is used for the cultivation of high-quality standard seedlings.

Brief summary of technology:

The technology includes a special scheme of the irrigation system, preparation of soil and cuttings.

The irrigation system consists of a divisional plastic pipe (1), the distribution pipe (2) connected through a valve (3). Polyethylene irrigation pipes (4) are connected to the distribution pipeline (2).

Holes are drilled at the top of the irrigation pipes (5). Fixers are installed on tops of the irrigation pipelines for stability in the cracks (6). Cuttings of fruit crops and grape (7) with 3-5 buds are planted by hand in the holes of plastic irrigation pipes laid in the cracks. Valves (8) or corks to create pressure are installed at the end of each irrigation pipeline. Cleaning of the pipeline is done by opening the cork (see. Fig. 1-3). Fig. 4 shows the last development stage of the seedlings. Middle furrows (10) are not irrigated, and so the number of tillage is reduced to a minimum.

Preparation of cuttings. Before planting the cuttings, it is recommended to smash the lower end of the cuttings, then cut them into straight slices of 2.0-2.5 cm pieces until the first eye, after which the cuttings are planted into the holes of the irrigation pipe.

Soil preparation involves applying 8-45 t/ha of manure, soil plowing in spring to a depth of 30-35 cm, harrowing and cutting cracks to a depth of 7-8 cm at a distance of 60 or 90 cm. At the same time, an irrigation system is installed. Cuttings are planted into the holes of the irrigated pipelines laid to cracks of 7.8 cm deep, and cover with soil. During covering with soil, the early spring weeds are destroyed.

Irrigations in growing season are carried out by pipelines, and thus the lower part of the cuttings before the first eye is located in water for a long time. Irrigation is applied with the rates of 300-533 m3/ha. This approach allows growing plants also on saline soils, as the conditions of "purification" of soil from salts are created.

Experience of growing cuttings using the proposed method was developed on the experimental site of the "Gun" Institute of Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan. Survival rate of pomegranate cuttings was 87.2%, of figs 82.4% and grapes 88.7%. The standard saplings of pomegranate were 72.1%, figs 65.8% and grapes 71.9%. Cuttings were planted at the 5-12 of March and dug out at 15-24 of November, 2011.

Irrigation application is carried out only by irrigation pipelines, so pollution between the ridges in the furrows is substantially reduced, morbidity and infestation with pests of fruit crops is also reduced.

Location: Magtimguli etrap (district) of the Balkan province.

Area of technology application: 1-8 ha.

Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation, saving of irrigation water.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

In the traditional technology for growing seedlings, up to 20-23 irrigations are conducted. Thus the soil is over-irrigated and so, the irrigation water is ineffectively lost. Growth performance of the seedlings is low.

Main technical features of technology:

Irrigation water saving, cultivation of standard seedlings with a good survival rate, maintenance of ecological soil conditions.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Arable land.

Cultivation of annual seedlings - Во(Ca).

Agronomic measures:

A3: Processing of the soil surface, irrigations.

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 195-310 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 450-590 m.

Landscape: valleys and mountains.

Slope (%): 1-9%.

Soil fertility: average.

Humus content in arable horizon: 0.6-1.8%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.

Size of land area (ha): 1-4 ha.

Landholder: farmer households.

Land ownership: private use.

Water use rights: state use.

Market orientation: market orientation.

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

Operational processes of the proposed irrigation system are very simple, productivity of the work of irrigators is 4-5 times more efficient. System is portable, easy to assemble and disassemble, pays off already during the first year of operation depending on the value of cultivated crop varieties. There is a possibility of applying the technology in saline soils. Water consumption for irrigation is reduced, soil processing is reduced to a minimum, soil quality is maintained, there is a good result of receiving standard seedlings.

Main disadvantages:

Additional costs for the procurement of materials needed for irrigation systems.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: Farmers that grow seedlings of fruit crops and vineyards, use this technology on their own sites.

Reference(s): Reports and recommendations of the Turkmenistan Academy of Sciences.

Name of person(s) collected this description: A.S. Saparmyradov, Chief expert of the Department of Agriculture, the Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan.

Address: 15, Bitarap avenue, Ashgabat744000, Turkmenistan.

Tel.: +993 12 94-30-60; Mob.: +993 65 63-71-15.

 E-mail: keremli@mail.ru

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