Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.
Definition of technology:
Without waiting for the final harvest of raw cotton from the fields, sowing of winter wheat is conducted in the inter-rows of cotton without primary soil tillage.
Brief summary of technology:
The need for a new technology of winter wheat cultivation has arisen in connection with the late harvest of cotton, which does not allow meeting the optimum sowing time (no later than October 20-25). Wheat is sown in the inter-rows of cotton, using inter-row cultivation and harrowing with a special harrow. After this operation, the technology does not differ from the traditional.
Sowing into the inter-rows minimizes the number of soil treatments in preparation for planting that has a number of benefits, both for nature and for the farmer - reduced number of traffic of agricultural machinery, reduced risk of soil compaction, reduced CO2 emissions into the atmosphere, savings on fuel and depreciation.
In the current conditions due to lack of special seeders, crop density is uneven. To make the planting system more effective, it is necessary to obtain seeders of better quality.
Improving sowing into the inter-rows of cotton:
The Uzbek Research Institute of Mechanization and Electrification of Agriculture has developed a comprehensive soil processing aggregate KM-3.6, which combines soil loosening, sowing in the inter-rows of cotton, making furrows, applying fertilizers and shredding stalks in a single pass, which reduces twice the number of used machinery, fuel and energy consumption by 2.35 times, increase of yields by 1.24 times. Increase of crop yields is due to the fact that sowing is carried out into the soil loosened by grubbing paw on the crest part of the row, creating optimal conditions for seed germination and plant development. Shredded mass is broadcasted on the field that corresponds to the principle of organic farming – a return of crop residues to the soil.
Location: Srednechirchik district, Tashkent province.
Area of technology application: 300-500 ha.
Stage of intervention: prevention of land degradation.
Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:
In many cotton-growing areas of Uzbekistan late harvesting of cotton causes delays of winter wheat planting.
Late sowing does not allow plants to go into the winter sleeping in the tillering phase, which reduces
the future productivity of winter wheat.
Main technical features of technology:
Improving of soil surface structure, enhancing organic matter contents.
Type of land use Conservation measures
Irrigated arable land.
Production of annual crops - Во(Ca).
A3: Processing of the soil surface.
Habitat Anthropogenic environment
Average annual rainfall: 200-350 mm.
Altitude (meter above sea level): 200-400 m.
Landscape: plains, valley.
Slope (%): 0-2% till 8-16% (from moderate to gentle steep).
Soil fertility: average.
Humus content in arable horizon: 0.5-1.5%.
Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.
Size of land area (ha): 30-50 ha.
Landholder: farmer households.
Land ownership: long term lease.
Water use rights: through WUAs and organizations responsible for management of irrigation systems.
Market orientation: State Order.
Impact of technology
- when sowing winter wheat into inter-rows of standing cotton, optimum time of sowing is achieved;
- chopping cotton stalks and mulching provide an additional amount of organic matter in the soil;
- minimization of processing reduces the need for the costs of growing wheat.
- the need for better management control and better equipment levels;
- the seeder of better quality is required;
- the effect of mulching of cotton residues can lead to problems of wheat disease.
Acceptance/adoption of technology: The technology is used by farmers everywhere, where there is a delay of cotton harvest, retarding the beginning of winter wheat sowing in optimal time.
Reference(s): traditional farming practice.
Name of person(s) collected this description: Tatyana Hamzina, Chief specialist on soil reclamation studies and irrigation regime. UZGIP LTD.
Address: 44, Navoi str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Tel.: +998 90 9945654,