Scientific research

Raised-bed – zero planting technology of crop cultivation

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

Raised-bed - zero technology is a combination of the technology of growing crops on ridges with zero (minimum) tillage, ie cropping in "permanent ridges and furrows".

Brief summary of technology:

Under the raised-bed – zero cultivation technology, some agricultural operations such as plowing, planking, chiseling, harrowing are excluded. Sowing is conducted in ridges formed during the previous growing season, with simultaneous application of mineral fertilizers. This technology is carried out using specialized seeders, which allows to combine several farming operations (sowing, fertilizing, forming ridges and furrows).

Introduction of resource-saving raised-bed – zero cultivation technology is aimed at increasing crop yields, reducing the cost of tillage, saving of irrigation water, planting materials, preservation of soil fertility, providing balanced nutrient, water and air modes of soil favorable for the growth and development of plants.

Location: Jambil district, Jambil province.

Area of technology application: 10-100 ha.

Stage of intervention: mitigation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Under the traditional technology of crop cultivation, a large number of soil processing measures is performed, which leads to its compaction and formation of "hand pan", reducing absorption and permeability of the soil, uneven distribution of water during irrigation.

Main technical features of technology:

Retention/capture of surface runoff, increase of organic matter contents, nutrients, water retention in the soil.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Irrigated arable land.

Production of annual crops - Во(Ca).

Agronomic measures:

A3: Minimal, processing of the soil surface;

A5: Other – forming of constant ridges.

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 250-300 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 500-600 m.

Landscape: plains, plateau/valleys.

Slope (%): 0-2% (flat, smooth).

Soil fertility: low, average.

Humus content in arable horizon: 1-3%, (moderate).

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: average.

Size of land area (ha): 100-5000 ha.

Landholder: cooperatives, medium land users.

Land ownership: individual with the right of ownership, lease.

Water use rights: water is a state property, used after payment according to local tariffs.

Market orientation: Mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- reducing the cost of agricultural expenses;

- reduction of labor workload: reduced costs for labor;

- reducing soil compaction;

- improvement of the soil surface and reduced surface runoff;

- reduced demand for irrigation water;

- improving crop yields and farm incomes.

Main disadvantages:

- the need for expensive special equipment;

- limitations of applicability (shallow, stony, clay soil and sandy soil because of the impossibility of forming ridges);

- areas with very steep slopes (0.01-0.008) due to large losses of surface water flow.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: 5 land user households implemented this technology with an external financial support.

Reference(s):

1. Ibatullin S.R., Paramonov A.I., Kwan R.A., S.M. Kaldarov. Prospects for the development of irrigated agriculture in the south: collection of scientific works. Proceedings of KazNIIVH. - Taraz, 2006. - V.43, no.2. - P. 15-30.

2. Recommendations for the efficient use of water for irrigation of agricultural crops in agricultural companies (for the southern region). Taraz, 2005. - 43 p.

3. M.K. Suleimenov, Akshalov K.A. The interaction of crop rotation and the level of agricultural techniques of cultivation of field crops: Proceedings of Intern. Conf. - Astana-Shortandi, 2009. - P. 252-258.

4. Karabayev M., J. Vasko, Matyushkov M. et al. Zero tillage technologies and direct seeding for the cultivation of crops in the northern Kazakhstan. - Almaty-Astana, 2005. - 64 p.

5. Kaskarbaev Z.A. Minimum and zero tillage technology as one of the main areas of resource saving in agriculture: Proceedings of Intern. Conf. - Astana-Shortandi, 2009. - P. 56-68.

6. Kiyas A.A., Begen T.A., Akhmetova A.K. Assessment of crop rotations under minimum tillage: Proceedings. Intern. Conf. - Astana-Shortandi, 2009. - 299 pp.

7. "No-Till" in Australia: excerpts from articles of the Australian farmers // Agrovestnik Astana. - 2009. - № 1 (5). Rattan Lal, USA. How to ensure the application of techniques of RSH in developing and low-income countries: Proceedings. Intern. Conf. - Astana-Shortandi, 2009. - P. 9-11.

8. Patrick C. Wall. Conservation agriculture and the need for innovation systems // Know-Till and crop rotation - the basis of the agrarian policy to support resource-saving agriculture for intensive sustainable production: Proceedings. Intern. Conf. - Astana-Shortandi, 2009. - P. 19.

9. M.K. Suleimenov. The transition from soil conservation to resource-saving farming systems of northern Kazakhstan // No-Till and crop rotation - the basis of the agrarian policy to support resource-saving agriculture for intensive sustainable production: Proceedings. Intern. Conf. - Astana-Shortandi, 2009. - P. 48-55.

10. Develop water saving technology of crop irrigation of continuous planting of crops sown on furrows, which provides high productivity of irrigated land: research report (final) / KazNIIVH Fund. - Taraz, 2005. - 45 p.

11. Kalashnikov A.A., Kwan R.A. Zoning, irrigation regime and irrigation technique in raised-bed methods of winter wheat sowing // Research on Amelioration and Water Management: collection of scientific works. Proceedings - Taraz, 2004.

Name of person (s) collected this description: P.A. Kalashnikov, Head of department of technique and technology of irrigation, KazNII of Water Resources.

Address: 12, K.Koygeldy str., Taraz, 080003 Kazakhstan.

Tel.: +7 726 2425540; +7 726 2426071; +7 726 2525333.

Е-mail:  kiwr-t@mail.ru; IWRE@bk.ru; kalashnikov_81@inbox.ru 

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