Scientific research

Establishment of agroforestry-amelioration strips by a diagonal-grouping method

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

The diagonal-grouping way of creation of agroforestryameliorativestrips forms an effective design of plantings andconsiderably reduces expenses on creation and the maintenanceof a forest belt.

Brief summary of technology:

Field-protecting agroforestry is carried out on farmlands for thepurpose of their protection from influence of the adverse naturalphenomena (dry winds, droughts, soil erosion) and anthropogenic factors. Forest belts turn agrarian landscape in forest-agrarian,create microclimate, improve land condition, promote formationof a favorable water mode and preservation of soil fertility, and positively influence efficiency of cattle production, working conditionsof farmers and dehkhans. Replacement of open agriculturallandscape by the forest-agrarian forms a qualitatively new ecological environment.

Field-protecting forest production are organized in various zonesand thus, an agro-technology of cultivation, viability and stabilityof plantings vary.

The scheme of creation of 6-row diagonal-grouping agroforestryameliorativeplantings is shown in the Fig. 2. The distance betweenrows in a strip is 1.5 m, the distance between trees is 10m. Locations in each row are displaced by 5 м to create a diagonalform of the plantation. Preparation for planting of saplings includes partial processing ofthe soil along the future rows, exact placement of planting places.  

Fig. 3 shows the scheme of soil processing in 6-row groupedplanting, allowing to considerably reduce expenses on creationand maintenance of the protective plantings in comparison withthe traditional scheme of forest belts, and also provides an effectivedesign of a forest strip for many years without measures formaintenance. Establishment and maintenance of a 1 ha of theagroforest-ameliorative strips by diagonal-grouping way is 1,5-2,0times more economical compared with the traditional schemes.

Figure 1. The agroforestry-ameliorativestrip from a Siberian larch, created by the diagonal-grouping way.

Figure 2. The scheme of placement ofplanting locations (bio-groups) under 6-rowdiagonal - group forest planting.

Location: Burabay district, Akmola province.

Area of technology application: 100 ha.

Stage of intervention: alleviation/reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of landdegradation:

The agricultural areas left without protection of forestbelts, are exposed to harmful effects of dry winds, awater and wind erosion, rapidly evaporate moisture,strengthening a soil drought that leads to losses of thecrop yields.

Main technical features of technology:

Protection, preservation and improvement of an soilcover, sequestration of carbon dioxide in a biomassand the soil.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Rainfed arable land.

Cultivation of annual agricultural crops- Во(Ca).

Vegetation measures:

В1: Coverage with trees and bushes.

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 250-500 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 100-500 m.

Landscape: plateaus/plains.

Slope (%): 0-2%.

Soil fertility: moderate.

Humus content in arable horizon: 1-3% (moderate).

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: moderate.

Size of land area (ha): 100-1000 ha.

Landholder: large scale land users.

Land ownership: the state, communal (organized)rights.

Water use rights: irrigation is not applied when plantingscreated and maintained.

Market orientation: Mixed farming (subsistence andcommercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- more economic in comparison with a traditionaltechnology of forest belt schemes;

- creates favorable micro-climate on fields, providesan increase of crop productivity and animal husbandryproduction;

- protects soil from degradation (reduces evaporation,prevents a wind erosion).

Main disadvantages:

- none.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: this technology of establishment of agroforestry-ameliorative strips is usedin RGP "Zhasyl Aymak" to establish artificial plantations of a green zone of the Astana city and agroforestryameliorativeplantations in the areas of the agricultural enterprises of the Northern region.

Reference(s):

1. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, “KazAgroInnovation” Joint-stock company, LLP “Kazakh researchinstitute of forestry”, «Recommendations on increase of efficiency, stability and durability of agroforestryameliorativeand protective-decorative plantations on low-fertile soils of Northern and Western Kazakhstan», Almaty,“Bastau” Publishing House LLP, 2011, 28 p.

2. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, JSC “KazAgroInnovation”, Kazakh research institute of forestry”,LLP, «Actions for establishment and formation of sustainable and effective agroforestry landscapes – agroecosystemsin Northern and Western Kazakhstan», “Bastau” Publishing House LLP, Almaty, 2009, 22 p.

Name of person (s) collected this description: A.M. Shishkin, Research fellow of the department of reproduction of forestsand forestry, KAZNII of forestry and agroforestry, LLP.

 Address: 17a, Ozernaya str., Almaty.

Tel.: +7 716 3641153.

E-mail: agro-melioration@mail.ru

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