Scientific research

Agroforestry based on establishment of gardens

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

It is an agroforestry system in which leguminous and cereal crops plant in inter-rows of fruit trees, providing both production of fruits and at the same time soil conservation.

Brief summary of technology:

Dekhkans of the Fayzabad district of Tajikistan traditionally cultivated leguminous crops and wheat in combination with fruit trees. In 1980th, during the Soviet period it had a form of nonsystematic agroforestry. To increase fruit production, terraces were built on land with surface slopes of more than 20%, increased density of the tree and established only orchards.

After independence, the dekhkans reduced the number of trees and released areas for planting of annual crops, and established new gardens by the same model. The distance between rows increased from 5 to 10 m, and between trees inside a row from 2 to 4 m.

The dekhkans-leaseholders combined planting with inclusion of wheat, and dekhkans-owners of land introduced crop rotation (1styear leguminous, the next two years - wheat).

This agroforestry system provides protection of annual crops against strong winds, decreases a water erosion of the soil due to the better soil coverage with vegetation, raises humus contents and nitrogen (ca. three quarters of the vegetation residues remain in the soil, and haricot fixates up to 60-80 kg/ha a year of nitrogen from the atmosphere and accumulates it in a root zone).

As root system of apple-trees extends within a radius of 1-1.5 m from the tree, the competition for nutrients is not a problem. Because leaves from the fruit trees fall down after harvesting, there are also no problems with a shade.

Location: Fayzabad district.

Area of technology application: 45 km2.

Stage of intervention: : prevention of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

As a rule, precipitation in late autumn - beginning of spring is accompanied by strong winds. During this period, a topsoil that has no vegetation cover is exposed to strong erosion. The intensive system of gardening during the Soviet period, which excluded cultivation of grass crops in the inter-rows, caused decrease of productive land capacity.

Main technical features of technology:

Improvement of soil cover, increase in nutrients and humus in the soil, increase of fertility, decrease of

wind speed, increase of biodiversity, prevention of gully erosion.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Mixed land.

Agroforestry - arable land and trees - Сл(Mf).

Agronomic measures:

A1: Vegetation / soil cover.

Vegetation measures:

В1: Coverage with trees and bushes.

Structural measures:

С1: Terraces (a slope with a terrace base <6%).


Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall: 500-750 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 1000-1500 m.

Landscape: mountainous slopes.

Slope (%): hilly (16-30%), steep (30-60%).

Soil fertility: low.

Humus content in arable horizon: <1%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: good.

Size of land area (ha): 1-2, 2-5 ha.

Landholder: dehkhans.

Land ownership: state, lease, private.

Water use rights: -

Market orientation: mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).


Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- gardens can be easily reconstructed;

- provides work places (largely self-employment) and increase of self-sufficiency;

- improvement of soil fertility, organic matter contents and nutrients (nitrogen);

- considerable reduction of soil erosion.

Main disadvantages:

Acceptance/adoption of technology: there is clear tendency of increase of independent implementation of this technology: 3500 households in the region which rented gardens, made reorganization to the new model independently, without any support.

Reference(s): WOCAT Database . Technology code: T_TAJ003ru. Date: 17.01.2011.

Contact person: Sangiboy Sanginov, Tajik institute of soil science. Email:

Name of person (s) collected this description: Tatyana Hamzina, Chief specialist on soil reclamation studies and irrigation regime. UZGIP LTD.

 Address: 44, Navoi str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Tel.: +998 90 9945654, Email: 




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