Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.
Definition of technology:
Reforestation on small-hill sands includes planting of the appropriate varieties of drought-resistant tree species without soil processing.
Brief summary of technology:
This method is applicable in Karakum, where a complex relief makes it impossible to apply machinery.
Small-hill sands with a thickness of 1.5-2.0 m underlain by clay deposits is the most optimal environment for development of a black saxaul. Saxaul planting is carried out with seedlings grown in nurseries or wild species - young trees dug out in natural or artificial saxaul thickets. If a planting material is dug out carefully, has long roots and delivered in due time, the survival rate will be high and the advantage of planting seedlings compared to seeding seeds is obvious. The planted plants appear with the developed root system that provides the large area of nutrition and stability against mobile sands.
The depth of the planting holes should be of 50-80 cm and sufficiently wide to contain fragile, bent saxaul roots. The height of the planting material should be about 80 cm, of single stem with a root diameter of a neck at the basis not less than 2 cm, and length of roots should be at least 50 cm. During planting, the minimum irrigation with a rate of 10-20 l per sapling is applied. In places where sand dries up to a depth exceeding the length of roots, additional irrigations during the growing period are obligatory.
Location: Bokurdak village, Karakum.
Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation.
Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:
Low natural soil fertility, anthropogenic pressure, global warming and decrease of precipitation, desertification processes are aggravated especially during autumn and winter period.
Main technical features of technology:
Improvement of soil cover, prevention of sanding, blowing off.
Type of land use Conservation measures
Forests / forest land.
Natural forest: the forest consisting of natural trees, not planted by human - Ле(Fn).
A1: Vegetation / soil cover.
Habitat Anthropogenic environment
Average annual rainfall:
Altitude (meter above sea level):
Slope (%): 0-2%.
Soil fertility: low.
Humus content in arable horizon: <1% (low).
Natural soil drainage/infiltration: good.
Size of land area (ha): 1-2, 2-5 ha.
Landholder: dehkhan associations, farmers.
Land ownership: state, lease.
Water use rights: -
Market orientation: Mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).
Impact of technology
- planting without soil processing reduces expenses;
- absence of soil processing reduces risk of development of a wind erosion;
- minimal irrigation only in the first 2-3 years;
- advantage of plantings over sowing is in the best survival rate.
- quite labor-consuming manual work;
- there is a requirement for careful observance of standards for a good survival rate of saplings.
Acceptance/adoption of technology: Within the frame of the project three plans of local communities on sustainable management of forest resources for the period of 2011-2020 are developed.
Reference(s): The GIZ project “Sustainable management of forest resources in Turkmenistan”.
Practical guidance of “Sustainable forest management in desert and mountain ecosystems of Turkmenistan” for users, Ashgabat, 2012.
Name of person (s) collected this description: Tatyana Hamzina, Chief specialist on soil reclamation studies and irrigation regime. UZGIP LTD.
Address: 44, Navoi str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan.
Tel.: +998 90 9945654