Scientific research

Afforestation on takyrs

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

Reforestation of takyrs is conducted by sowing seeds on a ploughed soil strip and in places where it is impossible to use a tractor, by saplings without soil processing.

Brief summary of technology:

When seeds sowing is conducted, it is recommended to plough a soil strip to a depth of 25-30 cm in two tractor passes under width of the strips of 2.8-3.0 m with an interval of 4-5 m. To avoid wind erosion, the strips are ploughed perpendicular to the dominating  wind direction. It is better to plough soil during winter or early spring and at the same time sow seeds. Before sowing, harrowing of the strips in 1-2 traces is conducted.

Optimum sowing dates are corrected so that when temperature passes over 50оС, it should be possible to receive more than 50% of shoots (shoots appear in 10 days after sowing). Norm of saxaul sowing is 8 kg/ha. The earlier the sowing is conducted, the higher the sowing rate should be accounting for destruction of seeds by rodents, birds, wind blowing, etc. Sowing depth of seeds is 3-5 cm. In case the germination rate is less than 25% resowing is carried out in the next year, at the germination rate of 25-85% - additional sowing.

Planting by saplings is carried out in areas where it is impossible to use a tractor. Before planting, forest pathological assessment is carried out to establish existence of rodents, gnawing insects, larvae of which damage roots and surface parts of forest saplings, with a purpose to define measures against them.

Holes are dug to a depth of not less than 80 cm, wide enough to locate sufficient amounts of a mixture of humus and sand in them. Distances between these planting holes are 4-5 m. The holes are prepared in autumn to accumulate moisture and salt leaching. A minimum irrigation is conducted during planting with a rate of 10-20 l per plant (it is possible to use brackish water from local wells). Irrigations are stopped in three years.

Location: Bokurdak village, Karakum.

Stage of intervention: alleviation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Low natural soil fertility, anthropogenic pressure, global warming and decrease of precipitation, desertification processes are aggravated especially during autumn and winter period.

Main technical features of technology:

Improvement of soil cover, prevention of sanding,  blowing off.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Forests / forest land.

Natural forest: the forest consisting of natural trees, not planted by human- Ле(Fn).

Agronomic measures:

A1: Vegetation / soil cover.

Environment

Habitat Anthropogenic environment

Average annual rainfall:

Altitude (meter above sea level):

Landscape: flat.

Slope (%): 0-2%.

Soil fertility: low.

Humus content in arable horizon: <1% (low).

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: good.

Size of land area (ha): 1-2, 2-5 ha.

Landholder: dehkhan associations, farmers.

Land ownership: state, lease.

Water use rights: -

Market orientation: Mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- planting saplings gives a good survival rate;

- minimal irrigation only in the first 2-3 years (when sowing seeds);

- sowing seeds under natural soil moisture (without irrigation).

Main disadvantages:

- afforestation by saplings is quite labor-consuming way demanding careful observance of standards for a good survival of saplings;

- afforestation by seed sowing gives low germination, resowing/additional sowing is often required.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: Within the frame of the project three plans of local communities on sustainable management of forest resources for the period of 2011-2020 are developed

Reference(s): The GIZ project “Sustainable management of forest resources in Turkmenistan”.

Practical guidance of “Sustainable forest management in desert and mountain ecosystems of Turkmenistan” for users, Ashgabat, 2012.

Name of person (s) collected this description: Tatyana Hamzina, Chief specialist on soil reclamation studies and irrigation regime. UZGIP LTD.

Address: 44, Navoi str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Tel.: +998 90 9945654

Email:  tatyana_khamzina@mail.ru

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