Scientific research

Integrated scheme of preparation of irrigation field

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

Integrated preparation of an irrigated field including the contour and ameliorative organization of the territory, field leveling or micro-leveling, soil plowing and processing across a slope accumulates a winter and spring precipitation and prevents horizontal leaching of the top fertile layer.

Brief summary of technology:

Integrated system of preparation of an irrigated field considers soil and topographic features of watersheds, allowing for effective use of land resources with soil protection against erosion. The contour and ameliorative organization of the territory defines an arrangement of all ameliorative elements and agrotechnical measures  of soil processing and accumulation of soil moisture.

The contour and ameliorative organization of the territory consists of combining longitudinal field borders with routes of waterretaining or water-discharging ditches or shafts. These borders are fixed by constant constructions. The best form of a site from the viewpoint of soil processing and irrigation is rectangular with a ratio of length and width 2:1 or 3:1.

Water is retained and discharged into the existing watercollecting ditches or specially arranged turf water streams, artificial beams and ravines by a system of cross-sectional constructions.

Water can also be discharged into this network in case of network failure.

During the division of the massif into micro-rotational irrigation sites the direction of irrigation furrows or strips is defined in advance.

Whenever possible, the direction of planting should coincide with the direction of irrigation. The arrangement of irrigation canals should be coordinated with micro-crop rotation borders.

All irrigation furrows or strips are located in parallel. After making furrows, discharging furrows across the direction are made with furrow-makers and then temporary irrigation ditch is prepared in the distances corresponding to the traditional length of furrows.

To prevent water erosion on land with a slope steeper than 0.01, all the complex of soil processing should be carried out only across a slope; or, as a last resort, at a certain angle to dominating slope starting from careful leveling or micro-leveling.

Autumn plowing is carried out immediately after harvesting of the predecessor crop to create conditions for retention and accumulation of a precipitation.

Location: „Kenenbay“ farm, Sokuluk district, Chuy province.

Area of technology application: 10 ha.

Stage of intervention: management of a water regime and erosive processes.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

The irrigated areas in conditions of Kyrgyzstan have steep slopes, the irrigation water is used inefficiently, and often irrigations provoke development of erosion processes.

Main technical features of technology:

Improvement of absorption of precipitation, decrease of surface runoff and soil leaching during irrigation.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Irrigated arable land.

Production of annual crops - Во(Ca).

Agronomic measures:

A3: Processing of soil surface.

Environment

Habitat

Average annual rainfall: 422-616 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 800-1200 m.

Landscape: foothill.

Slope (%): 7-15%.

Soil fertility: moderate.

Humus content in arable horizon: on average 1.5%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: lower.

Anthropogenic environment

Size of land area (ha): 2-5 ha.

Landholder: small/middle sized, mixed.

Land ownership: arable land - 75% individual and 25% state; state pastures.

Water use rights: through WUAs and organizations responsible for management of irrigation systems on  relevant payment.

Market orientation: subsistence farming (self sufficiency), free market.

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- reduces discharge of irrigation water and surface soil leaching;

- stops erosion processes;

- achieves uniform moisture distribution along the length of furrows;

- raises productivity of agricultural crops.

Main disadvantages:

Required:

- field leveling;

- construction of water metering constructions;

- reinforcing of furrow heads.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: a trend of increase of implementation of this technology is observed.

Reference(s): WOCAT Database and reports of the Kyrgyz Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation.

Name of person(s) collected this description: A. Naloychenko, leading research associate;

A. Atakanov, head of lab of irrigation and soil - erosive research. Kyrgyz Scientific Research Institute of Irrigation.

Address: 4А, Toktonaliyev str., Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.

Tel.: +996 (312) 541 171.

E-mail:  aatakanov@mail.ru 

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