Scientific research

Establishing seed farming plot of perennial grasses

Author: Knowledge Management in CACILM Phase II, ICARDA.

Definition of technology:

Improvement of pastures by establishing of seed farming sites and additional sowing of perennial bean and cereal herbs.

Brief summary of technology:

Excess of load exerted on pastures and absence of pasture rotation caused overgrazing and degradation of pastures adjacent to the Katon-Karagay village.

A technology of pasture improvement by additional sowing of perennial bean and cereal fodder herbs (esparcet, alfalfa, Eastern catgut, rump, cocksfoot) and their mixture is developed within the frame of the GEF/PMG project on „The organization of management of pasture land of the Katon-Karagay village“ for minimization of land degradation.

The main components of the technology are:

1. A site protection for prevention of crop damage by livestock;

2. Soil preparation - plowing to a depth of 25-27 cm with soil moving, harrowing and alignment;

3. Spring sowing of cover annual crops (barley, oats) to a depth of 5-10 cm;

4. Sowing of perennial herbs and cereals (brome, couch grass, esparcet, sweet clover, three-fork-grass) to a depth of 2-3 cm across plantations of annual crops;

5. Harvesting of annual crops and perennial herbs for forage (once a year in autumn);

6. Collecting seeds is carried out for the third year after sowing.

As herbs are perennial, only periodic application of nitric fertilizers is carried out.

In the first two years before development of turf, the land is not used as pastures. Besides actual restoration of pastures, the seed material from a site is used for restoration of pastures in other rural districts.

Location: East-Kazakhstan/Katon-Karagay district.

Area of technology application: 80 ha.

Stage of intervention: prevention of degradation, mitigation / reduction of land degradation.

Main land use issues and the main causes of land degradation:

Land degradation because of irrational use of pastures (increase of livestock without considering fodder availability and a permissible load), absence of pasture rotation, overgrazing near settlements, absence of regenerative measures).

Main technical features of technology:

Improvement of land cover, increase of biomass and biodiversity, improvement of soil structure.

Type of land use Conservation measures

Pasture land.

Extensive Pasture land - Пэ(Ge).

Vegetation measures:

В2: Grass and perennial grass plants.

Environment

Habitat

Average annual rainfall: 400-500 mm.

Altitude (meter above sea level): 1000 m.

Landscape: intermountain valley.

Slope (%): 2-5% (gentle).

Soil fertility: high.

Humus content in arable horizon: >3%.

Natural soil drainage/infiltration: good.

Anthropogenic environment

Size of land area (ha): 2-5 ha.

Landholder: smallholder land users.

Land ownership: state; long term lease.

Water use rights: rent agreements on water use.

Market orientation: mixed farming (subsistence and commercial).

Assessment

Impact of technology

Main advantages:

- stops land degradation;

- low-cost technology with high economic effect;

- improvement of herbs quality and food supply;

- increase of live weight of cattle;

- possibility of receiving additional income.

Main disadvantages:

- possibility of continuation of measures after end of short-term rent is unknown;

- in case of a change of local government, people are not sure that rent for the land will be prolonged.

Acceptance/adoption of technology: Implementation took place with help of a "Mametek" farm with involvement of local inhabitants.

Reference(s): WOCAT Database. Technology code: T_KAZ007ru.

Compiled by: Konstantin Pachikin. CACILM MSEC. Date: 12.12. 2011.

Contact person: Toktasyn Bakimbayev, "Mametek" farm, Katon-Karagay village. Tel.: +7 705 622 7022.

Name of person(s) collected this description: Tatyana Hamzina, Chief specialist on soil reclamation studies and irrigation regime. UZGIP LTD.

Address: 44, Navoi str., Tashkent, Uzbekistan.

Tel.: +998 90 9945654

E-mail:  tatyana_khamzina@mail.ru 

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